better to fly an old Cessna 150, than to sit at home reading about jets

“Why would anyone want an airplane like that?” queried my then-teenaged son about the weathered Cessna 150 parked across from us.

“Simple,” I replied, “the owner can afford to fly it anytime he wants. We see him out here all the time, right? Suppose you could have that airplane and fly all you wanted — would you take it?”

“My own airplane? Sure! I’d take it in a second!”

As we walked away, both a bit more respectful of the ancient Cessna’s owner, I pondered whether we aviators adequately educate new pilots on affordably continuing their flying adventures once training is over.

My son is certainly not alone in his desire to fly something sexy — pilots naturally lust over sleek and fast airplanes gracing airport ramps and magazine covers. But how many have realistic expectations of what they can afford? Most pilots strive for the most advanced aircraft they can imagine themselves flying, and as a result often conclude they can’t afford to fly, or financially suffer after buying beyond their means. Either way we lose them from our aviation community.

The fact is that most anyone who can manage flying lessons is within reach of owning an airplane, or part of one, anyway. Our challenge is educating pilots that the best plane for them is one they can easily afford to purchase and operate.

Among the challenges is that prospective pilots often assume they’re gonna go out and buy a new airplane like they’d buy a new car. For most people that’s dauntingly expensive for sure. But right now you can purchase an older but still capable airplane for a song. Look at it this way: if everyone thought they could only be a driver by owning a new Mercedes or BMW, far fewer people would drive. But most of us start with older used cars and work our way up. Better that pilots invest in a well-used steam-gauge 150 and upgrade as circumstances permit, then to buy a speedy new Cirrus before they can afford it and we lose them as pilots forever.

Part of the problem is that airplane ownership cost is far more complex than just the purchase price. Similar dollars will buy anything from a new Skyhawk to a long-in-the-tooth King Air turboprop. Novice buyers often tend toward the higher-performance end of that scale, with an eye toward faster and more glamorous travel, at “the same price.”

But operating and insurance costs for various aircraft vary across the spectrum, so given a similar budget the 172 buyer may fly all she wants at a cost she can easily afford, while the King Air owner goes broke a month after buying it. Aiming too high is why so many people conclude, “I can’t afford to fly.” What they actually can’t afford is to fly beyond their means, which unfortunately is what many pilots try to do.

We need to be more creative and helpful in keeping our new pilots aloft, if we want to retain them among our ranks. That means educating them to all the options for independent flying, with the “American dream” of ownership topping the list. That’s not so tough as it sounds. A friend of mine recently sold a serviceable Cessna 152 for $18,000. Legendary flight instructor Bill Kershner did most of his teaching in 150s and 152s, and noted aviation author and speaker Rod Machado flies one for his personal airplane.

Sure, you might need to forego glass cockpits and the smell of new, but given the choice, who wouldn’t rather fly a nicely-aged 150 or Cherokee or 172, than sit at home reading about jets?

Read my related Flying Carpet column, “Affordable Adventure,” about Cessna 150 owner Matt Peacock.

Photo: Legendary flight instructor Bill Kershner’s Cessna 152 Aerobat, on display in the National Air & Space Museum.

PS: A great place to begin investigating used aircraft models is via Aviation Consumer. (~$70 per year.) Subscribers can instantly download their thorough and unbiased used-airplane reports covering virtually all ages and models at no additional charge, including breakdown of features and design changes by year of manufacture.

©2011, 2017 Gregory N. Brown

If you enjoyed this story, you’ll love Greg’s book, Flying Carpet: The Soul of an Airplane. Autographed copies available!

How often must new pilots fly to stay proficient?

My buddy Gary just wrote with a great question. He’d been chatting with another friend, Yaron, who is taking flying lessons,  and the two were discussing how many hours per month a new pilot should fly to remain proficient. Yaron figured six hours per year would be enough, while Gary was thinking more in terms of six hours per month.

At three landings per 90 days, the regs hardly require enough continuing flight experience to stay sharp. Competence can be measured at different levels, but in my mind a minimum of 2-3 flights per month are desirable to maintain basic piloting skills, particularly for those new to the game. That being said, frequency is probably more important than hours. For those on a tight budget I’d rather see two or three 45-minute flights a month in the traffic pattern, than a single 3-hour cross-country with only two landings.

One thing that always intrigues me about such questions (and they are very common) is why anyone who has invested all the time, money, and passion into becoming a pilot wouldn’t automatically want to fly a few times a month. Otherwise why learn? I suspect it’s due to budgetary concerns, which brings me to a final point. Pilots-in-training like Yaron are accustomed to making a big investment every flight, because they’re paying for the airplane and usually an instructor every time themselves. But flying once you’re licensed needn’t be nearly that expensive.

The regs of course allow expense-sharing with passengers, and more pilots should take advantage of that as an alternative to flying infrequently. Rather than flying around the neighborhood alone once a month, invite two friends to share costs and make three flights for the same investment. $100 might sound expensive, but who can’t come up with $35 for an airplane ride?

Going somewhere makes it even more palatable. Instead of flying around Phoenix for proficiency, head for Las Vegas. Better yet, make the trip with two couples and… well, does $120 apiece sound reasonable for a day in Vegas? Again, those taking lessons tend to think in terms of “flying costs $100 per hour.” But going somewhere in that hour changes the picture considerably. Invite someone along to share the cost, and it becomes more reasonable yet. The bottom line for staying proficient while controlling your flying budget? Fly smarter, rather than less often.

I suspect others have opinions and suggestions on this, so please chime in!

©2011 Gregory N. Brown

“Girls’ Morning Out,” Greg’s March column & photos

“Four-whiskey-alpha – is that you?”

“Hey Greg, are you free tomorrow for ‘guys’ morning out?’”

It was my former neighbor, Gary Wyant, from when Jean and I lived near Phoenix.

Once or twice a year, Gary cruises his motorcycle an hour northeast through the Mazatzal Mountains from Fountain Hills, and I soar 35 minutes southeast over the Mogollon Plateau from Flagstaff to rendezvous at Payson Airport’s Crosswinds Restaurant.

Often I invite friends along; this time it was my retired Flagstaff neighbors, Suzanne Golub and Sue Weber. Suzanne is a student pilot, and Sue has long requested a ride. So early the next morning, we three winged our way toward Payson.

“Is there anything you’d like to practice on this trip?” I asked Suzanne after takeoff.

“Frankly, the radio is my nemesis. Every time I push the mic button I get stage fright. In fact one day I was suffering and suffering on the radio while circling the traffic pattern. I babbled something on the radio, and the tower came back and said, ‘Four-whiskey-alpha – is that you?’” We laughed at her rendition of the controller’s quizzical inflection, and agreed that she’d handle communications this trip.

“What got you interested in piloting, Suzanne?” asked Sue.

“Actually Sue, I’ve had a great desire to fly for as long as I can remember. There’s not an airplane or helicopter that flies overhead that I don’t stop to watch, and wish I was going along, wherever they are going.

Continue reading Greg’s March column, “Girls’ Morning Out,” here. (Please allow a moment for the column to load.)

Photo: Suzanne’s first solo, Flagstaff Pulliam Airport, Arizona. See additional photos, here.

©2011 Gregory N. Brown

If you enjoyed this story, you’ll love Greg’s book, Flying Carpet: The Soul of an Airplane. Autographed copies available!

student pilot benchmark: “you can feel it.”

“HOW DID IT GO?” my wife asked as I dropped my logbook on the dresser in the bedroom.

“Okay, I guess,” I said on my way to preflight the liquor cabinet in the dining room.

“You don’t sound very enthusiastic,” she said as she followed me into the dining room. My wife can be very perceptive.

“It was okay,” I said, draining some of the liquid from one of the containers to check for contaminates and octane rating. It was 80 proof.

“What does your instructor say?” she asked.

“He says I do okay. But I bet he says that to all the students,” I added with a smile.

“You don’t know yourself how you did?” she asked.

“No, I really don’t. I can’t tell how I’m doing. What’s for dinner?”

My buddy Tom Benenson penned those words for Flying magazine way back in July, 1974. Yes, that was long ago. But read Tom’s marvelous column, “Bench Mark,” and you’ll recognize that you, me, and all pilots-in-training have faced the same challenges since the birth of flight.

Greg’s March column, “Airplane for sale,” and additional photos

How many people put off their dreams of a lifetime as they get older, and as a result, never attain them? And how many others get discouraged during the process of pursuing those dreams, and quit?

Idaho pilot Phil Role waited later in life than many to become a pilot, and overcame challenges to achieve that goal. A dozen years later, after encountering serious bumps in the road of life, he looks back to assess whether it was worth it.


Above: Phil Role flies his beloved Piper Comanche over southern Idaho. Click here to see additional photos. ©2010 Gregory N. Brown

Postscript, June 11, 2010: Sadly, Phil Role passed away this morning of complications of his condition described in the column. We had hoped to fly to Sandpoint next month to meet him and Mary Catherine in person. Goodbye ol’ buddy. Hopefully there’s a cream-puff Piper Comanche for you to fly up there…

If you enjoyed this story, you’ll love Greg’s book, Flying Carpet: The Soul of an Airplane. Autographed copies available!

what is a perfect landing, anyway?

Nearly all student pilots are significantly challenged trying to master landings (as are many licensed pilots, too).

What exactly are these frustrating “perfect landings” we’re shooting for, anyway? Must every touchdown be glassy smooth?

Keep in mind that even the most experienced pilots show a good deal of variability in their landings based on conditions, fatigue, distractions, etc. (Just ask my wife how often I bounce the Flying Carpet. Then again, please don’t!)

What you’re actually striving for to get soloed is not so much consistently “perfect” landings, but rather, consistently “controlled and safe” landings. So if you balloon on a given landing and correct, or drift to one side and correct, or choose to go around from a bad approach and then make a good one, and each results in a safe and controlled landing, that is actually a worthy performance.

Sure, all pilots must shoot for “Attaboy!” perfection on landing, but we cannot plan on achieving “greasers” every time. What we must accomplish, however, is a safe and controlled landing every time. Sounds much more achievable, doesn’t it? That is what we are striving for, and you can do it!

For specific landing tips, see my posts, make better landings and master crosswind landings. ©2010 Gregory N. Brown

Greg’s pilot flight test tips

Preparing for your Private Pilot Practical Test (generically called the checkride or flight test] is a whole different matter than the written.

First, there’s the need to understand aeronautical knowledge topics in depth beyond just the simple answers.

Next is the obvious aspect of performance proficiently completing the tasks spelled out in the Airman Certification Standards (ACS).

A third factor in successfully passing flight tests is attitude; the examiner will be looking for just the right combination of care and confidence.

And finally, there are the potential effects of stress to deal with. Beyond the specific items listed in the ACS, how can we prepare?

The examiner wants you to pass.

Before taking your test, it’s extremely helpful to contact other pilots who have recently completed checkrides with the same examiner. Not only can they share intelligence helpful in preparing for the test, but they’ll generally reduce your stress by relating that the examiner was pleasant and reasonable to deal with, and expressing their comfort with the experience.

If you’re the nervous type, go a step further and ask your instructor to arrange a brief get-to-know-you meeting with the examiner, ahead of time. War stories notwithstanding, you’ll find that the examiner wants you to do well and pass the first time as much as you do.

A Good First Impression

Sure, every pilot examiner is supposed to be totally objective, evaluating with clinical precision each applicant’s performance relative to the ACS without regard to personality, circumstance, or conditions — superhuman, in other words. Hey! Examiners are people, too, and should be addressed accordingly.

As with anyone you want to impress, it’s worth the effort to prepare ahead of time to make a good impression. For example, any applicant who doesn’t dress nicely for the checkride is just plain nuts. Examiners can wear anything they want to the test, because no one’s evaluating them, but your objective is to convey competence, good judgment and professionalism. Looking sharp creates the expectation that you’ll do a good job. That’s a nice way to start any personal evaluation.

Reserve the nicest trainer at your flight school; preflight it the day before in case anything needs to be fixed. The airplane should be clean, and all trash removed from the seat pockets… helps you look like the professional you are.

Required paperwork

Collect and review all your pilot and aircraft paperwork ahead of time with your instructor. Those paperwork requirements are printed as a checklist in the front of the ACS, and any applicant who doesn’t go through it item by item is looking for trouble.

1.     Review your pilot logbook with your CFI to make sure all experience and endorsement requirements are met.

2.     Review the aircraft logs and paperwork for the specific plane you will fly for the test, with your instructor. Know how to identify current registration, and key maintenance entries such as transponder check and annual or 100-hour inspection.

3.     Paperclip all your pilot paperwork, including a check for the examiner’s fee, into a bundle. Now do the same with the aircraft paperwork. When you walk into the examiner’s office, hand over that packet of documents and logbooks following your initial handshake.

4.     Organize your planning and cockpit gear in some sort of convenient carrying case (needn’t be a $400 flight bag – just something neat, clean and organized).

These simple actions show the examiner that you and your CFI are organized, and that your paperwork and plane have been reviewed ahead of time. They also avoid the embarrassment and discomfort of searching your wallet, flight bag, and airplane for some errant document.


Get a thorough weather briefing before the checkride; be prepared to express any concerns to the examiner, and if necessary, to make a go or no-go decision. The examiner expects to see decision-making, so be prepared to unilaterally decide whether the weather is adequate or not, preferably on the conservative side. Keep in mind that after hearing a no-go answer, the examiner may then decide that the weather is adequate for your checkride anyway – in that case don’t worry about it. But if you say, “Sure, let’s go” when the weather may not be safely flyable, or don’t raise the issue when you should, well that’s not a promising start.

Your own biggest checkride weather concerns probably relate to performing within the test standards. Most applicants are petrified at the thought of taking their practical tests on a “bumpy” day. Well, don’t worry too much about it. Examiners have the latitude to flex a little on the tolerances, when justified by conditions. Do your best to fly within the numbers, of course, but if the flight is subject to 1000-foot-per-minute updrafts, the examiner will take that into account. Just be sure to get back to correct altitude and heading pronto. In many cases, it’s actually easier to pass a checkride on a bumpy day since smooth conditions don’t mask any pilot errors.

The oral exam

The obvious key to passing the oral portion of your pilot practical test is preparation; if you know everything there is to know relating to the certificate or rating at hand, the oral exam is likely to work out just fine. It’s not easy, however, to anticipate every possible question the examiner might ask.

Most applicants have two concerns about the oral. First is gaining confidence: after studying so much material and realizing how much there is to learn, how can one confidently go in for the test? A related concern is, “What if the examiner asks me something I don’t know?”

Aside from the obvious technique of having your instructor quiz you in preparation for the oral, several other things can be done to prepare.

First, understand that the oral exam is not a closed-book test. Since few exams in other fields allow the use of reference materials to answer questions, the average pilot applicant assumes the need to understand and memorize every detail of the entire aviation universe in preparation for the test. No wonder we’re apprehensive!

While the examiner obviously won’t let you read the whole oral from a book, it’s perfectly acceptable to look up occasional facts that don’t come readily to mind. There’s nothing wrong with saying once or twice during the oral, “I don’t know that answer off the top of my head, but I know where to find it.” Not only does this relieve pressure on you, but you can use the knowledge to organize your test preparation.

Examiners generally recognize only FAA-approved publications as source materials for answering questions, so familiarize yourself with official materials including the FARs, the AIM, the aircraft’s POH, and relevant advisory circulars.

TabbedBooks-IFRcheckridePrep_Jake HuittphotoeSmw1200

A great way to accomplish this is to label key sections of each publication with adhesive tabs and highlighters so you can easily find things. In the course of doing this, you’ll learn lots about the organization of the material inside.

Now, if anything needs to be looked up at the oral, you can find it quickly. What’s more, you’ll be more confident knowing that you can easily find answers to important questions. An additional benefit to tabbing your books is that even before asking the first question, the examiner can see that you’ve invested some heavy-duty work into studying the materials and preparing for the test.

Similarly, it is perfectly okay to occasionally refer to keys and legends on aeronautical and performance charts during the test. Again, many people tend to think they’re somehow cheating by looking at such references; that misperception could result in a pink slip.

Finally, it’s helpful to understand the general line of questioning at oral exams. Examiners are guided by the ACS as to topic, but not specific questions. So to cover the material they commonly ask a general question or two on each topic, and then dig deeper into potential problem areas where the applicant’s answers are weak. Accordingly it’s important to have a broad understanding across the spectrum of topics, with additional concentration on problem areas where you feel weak.

The flight test

The beauty of today’s Airman Certification Standards is that they precisely spell out what must be accomplished on the practical test, to very specific tolerances. Instructor, student, and examiner all play by the same rules in this regard, and that’s to everyone’s advantage.

One problem faced by applicants, however, is that they view every individual tolerance as a place to fail. The effect is like trying to plug fifty leaks in a sinking boat with your hand… panic. Sure, we must strive to perform every maneuver within tolerances. But it’s equally important to understand that the examiner’s overall objective is to determine that you can safely and proficiently operate an aircraft. So strive for an overall good performance on the test. If you do a safe, thorough, and credible job, you’ll have a high likelihood of passing. Sure, examiners can technically fail you for wandering a hundred feet off altitude, but they won’t likely do so unless you are consistently off altitude and fail to correct.

The trick is to fly like a professional, doing your best on each maneuver without getting flustered by the details. What’s more, keep in mind that examiners are concerned about the conduct of the entire flight, not just the ACS tasks – so continue to maintain your heading and altitude between maneuvers. And be sure that your habits include clearing turns and otherwise safe and sensitive operations.

Another important checkride objective is avoiding misunderstandings with the examiner. Not every pilot does every maneuver exactly the same way. So don’t be alarmed if the examiner quizzes you about the way you do a particular maneuver, or perhaps uses different terminology. Just listen carefully, and ask for clarification if you don’t understand a request or instruction. The time to avoid confusion is before executing a given maneuver, not afterwards, so if in doubt, ask first. Whatever happens, don’t get into an argument with the examiner; just take the approach of, “here’s an opportunity to learn something.”

Technically, examiners are not supposed to instruct on checkrides, but many still enjoy sharing useful tips. So in general, don’t get concerned if the examiner wants to demonstrate something. Just take advantage of the opportunity to learn. (One guarantee that you have flunked the test is if the examiner must grab the controls “when the outcome of a maneuver is in doubt” – say to rescue the plane from a stall, spin, or botched landing.)

What if I “goof up” in the airplane?

If you don’t like the way a maneuver went, say, “I can do a better job of that,” and ask to do it again. Examiners aren’t supposed to allow you to repeat maneuvers, but often enough they’ll say, “Sure, go ahead and do it again.” Other times they’ll say, “It wasn’t perfect, but since you understand what you did wrong, let’s move on.” Of course, if you get a second try and screw it up, no one can fault the examiner for issuing a pink slip.

Unless specifically told otherwise by the examiner, assume at all times that you are passing. Many applicants fail checkrides because they’re unsatisfied with how they performed a maneuver, think they “might have failed,” and then nervously botch everything that comes afterward. Technically, examiners are supposed to tell you at the moment you’ve failed, so no news during checkrides is generally good news. If something goes poorly, just devote your full attention to the next maneuver. Besides, if you do fail the test, it’s customarily only required on the retake to perform the specific tasks missed on the initial checkride.

Strive for an overall good performance rather than getting hung up on individual details. First, though you might feel that you goofed up, the examiner might have been satisfied, and doing the rest of the test well means you pass. Secondly, even if the examiner is dissatisfied with one maneuver, he or she may still pass you if the rest of the ride went well, and the error wasn’t too far out of tolerance. And finally, by completing the checkride in good form, even a failing applicant benefits by likely limiting what must be accomplished on the retest.

What if I fail?

You’ll probably pass on your first attempt, but what’s the worst thing that will happen if you do fail? Not much! You’ll brush up on your weak areas with your instructor and retake the test a week or two later, a better pilot for the experience. As pilot Sibte Hassan says, “Think of it as a Go Around.” And if you’re an aspiring pro pilot, don’t let the rumor mill scare you into thinking that failing will ruin your career. As the saying goes, “every pilot flunks a checkride sooner or later.” Sure, you don’t want to make a habit of failing, but in general, what’s the big deal? Prepare as well as possible to pass on your first attempt, but don’t let fear of failure stop you from pursuing your dream of flight!

Trust yourself and your instructor!

Finally, here’s CFI Gene Bishop on the importance of Trust:

“Trust that your instructor, who by way of signing you off to take a checkride is also subjecting him/herself to the examiner’s scrutiny, knows that you are fully prepared and ready to meet this challenge.

“But most importantly, trust yourself. You know the maneuvers. You know the information. You know where to find the answers. Trust that you are ready and that you will pass this test.

“Nobody is expecting perfection, and the worst thing that can happen is you have to repeat part of the checkride. In the grand scheme, that’s not a big deal at all.

“So by all means study and quiz yourself, but also make sure you eat right and get plenty of rest leading up to your checkride. Don’t let your nerves get the better of you. You’ll do fine.”

Here are some of DPE Jason Blair’s Reflections and Tips from Recent Checkrides.

Best of success on your checkride!

For more checkride tips, see Greg’s book, The Savvy Flight Instructor, Second Edition.

©2014, 2016, 2018, 2020 Gregory N. Brown

For more guidance on this topic, see Greg’s book, The Savvy Flight Instructor 2nd Edition, available in print and ebook.

Pilot learning plateau? Don’t get discouraged!

Do you ever feel like you’re not getting anywhere with your flight training? That on some maneuvers your skills seem to be sliding backward rather than progressing? Perhaps you’re suffering loss of confidence as a result. Well if so, you’re not alone. Every pilot-in-training runs into such problems — excelling at times while frustrated at others. Unfortunately, few student pilots hear about the challenges their peers experience, so they often assume that only they are having problems.

Your flight instructor will tell you that every student faces training setbacks, but virtually everyone who sticks with it goes on to become a competent pilot. In fact, what you are facing is so common it has a name: Learning Plateau.” The phenomenon is formally taught to CFIs because it occurs with every aspiring pilot — the student progresses rapidly for a while, then hits a learning plateau with no apparent progress. Once overcoming the plateau it’s back to rapid progress again!

Here’s a graph of the learning plateau. To quote directly from the Aviation Instructor’s Handbook, “…in learning motor skills, a leveling-off process, or a plateau, is normal, and can be expected after an initial period of rapid improvement. The instructor should prepare the student for this situation to avert discouragement. If the student is aware of this learning platform, frustration may be lessened.”

There are several approaches for overcoming a learning plateau. Step one is for your instructor to tackle the challenge in a variety of different ways. Each of us learns differently, so several approaches may be required to find the one that works best for you. If you feel that you and your CFI have “tried everything” with no results, schedule a lesson with someone else you respect, like your school’s Chief Flight Instructor. A fresh perspective will likely put you back on track.

Finally, if you find yourself getting discouraged take a break from stalls and steep turns and make a pleasure flight — to remind yourself of why you’re learning to fly in the first place. For fun! For adventure! For relaxation! Assuming that you don’t come from an aviation background, your piloting experience is probably limited to an intro flight followed by a series of high-intensity lessons. Other than craning our necks for traffic, not many of us get to relax and enjoy the view prior to solo cross-country. But few pilots learn to fly because they love practicing stalls and steep turns.

That’s why, even though it’s not on the syllabus, a casual “pleasure flight” is sometimes the best thing you can do for yourself. Ask your CFI to schedule an extra “brunch lesson” to fly to an hour-away airport. If you want to make the flight educational, visit a nearby Automated Flight Service Station or radar approach control facility for a tour. Or go to a pancake fly-in. (Fly-ins are great places to learn collision-avoidance techniques!) But wherever you go on this trip, make it long enough for you to do some relaxed flying, and allow time at the destination to kick back with your instructor, relax, and talk.

Your “pleasure flight” objectives are to get some positive feedback on skills already learned, and to remind you of why it’s worth the headaches to become a pilot. Such adventures break the pattern of stressful lessons, and give you the opportunity to realize, “Hey, I may not have stalls perfectly nailed yet, but look at how far my piloting has come! I just flew an airplane comfortably for a hundred miles, all while holding my heading and altitude within Private Pilot practical test tolerances, handling the radios, and having fun to boot.” Imagine doing that a month ago!

Finally, keep in mind that the number of hours it takes for a pilot to earn a Private certificate doesn’t necessarily reflect the quality of the pilot’s skills when done. If anything, those who rush through training are often poorer performers. So keep chipping away at those learning plateaus, knowing you will indeed overcome them, and if necessary, take an occasional pleasure lesson to reawaken your excitement about being a pilot. You will never regret it!

©2009, 2017 Gregory N. Brown

(See also my Student Pilot Pep Talk Facebook Group.)

For more guidance on this topic, see Greg’s book, The Savvy Flight Instructor 2nd Edition, available in print and ebook.